Cracks are cleaned out with a chipping gun or routed with a saw, to remove any loose material. A waterproofing material is applied next, followed by an industrial-strength adhesive. A specialised crack filler is used to repair the crack, which is then coated with another layer of a waterproofing material. Slight grinding is done, to smooth the repaired area. Painting is done last, if requested by client.
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Crack preparation ahead of repair and waterproofing is an essential first step, contingent upon various surface characteristics and conditions. Utilising top-tier industrial-strength adhesives serves as the next step in this critical process. Subsequently, the choice of filling material is carefully tailored to suit the specific demands of the project at hand; sometimes, a combination of hydraulic and black cement might be deemed necessary to achieve optimal results.
However, the paramount objective during crack repair is long-lasting waterproofing, and to accomplish this, Tenera specifies a high-performance polyurea-based waterproofing material. This substance aids in the preservation of structural integrity and guards against water intrusion, even in the most challenging environmental conditions.
A breathable paint option can be incorporated as the final step if requested by the client. This breathable paint not only enhances the aesthetic appeal of the repaired surface but also plays a role in providing additional protection.
Crack Repair in Manholes
Crack injection in manholes is a meticulous and precise procedure similar to expansion joint injection. It begins by drilling small 0.5-inch-wide injection ports on both sides of the crack. These ports act as entry points for a specialised polyurethane material used in the repair process.
Once the injection ports are ready, the polyurethane material is carefully injected into the crack with precision. The injection continues until the material starts coming out of the opening. The main goal is to fill and seal the crack thoroughly, ensuring no residual liquids can accumulate outside the manhole walls. This injection process is repeated for each opening, achieving comprehensive coverage and complete sealing of the crack. This approach effectively addresses structural issues associated with the crack, enhancing the manhole's integrity and preventing water infiltration or other damaging substances.
Patching with No Moisture
If there are no active leaks and the surface is dry, slight griding is done to ensure proper patch installation. The prepared area is then coated with an industrial-strength adhesive, and the patch installed immediately afterwards (The product used provides monolithic adhesion which allows for patches as thin as 5 mm to be installed.). Some grinding is done, for a smoother surface finish.
Patching a Wet Surface
When there is active leakage, the water must be stopped and the surface dried. Polymer cement is used as a leak stop, followed by surface torching. The surface is then coated with a primer, followed by a waterproofing material, and an industrial-strength adhesive. Patching is done immediately afterward, and grinding is done, to smooth out the surface.
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To ensure lasting repair results, specific conditions of the substrate must be taken into consideration: the presence of an active leak, or whether the surface is moist or dry. Each scenario demands a distinct approach for optimal results. Thorough substrate preparation is of utmost importance to ensure the longevity of concrete repairs, as it sets the foundation for the subsequent steps.
To achieve successful repairs, the utilisation of specialised materials and adherence to the prescribed repair method are paramount. These materials are carefully chosen to provide the required properties for a durable and effective patch. The specified repair method, when followed diligently, enables the installation of patches with a thickness of 5 mm or more, as needed. This attribute proves invaluable in situations where slope correction is necessary, as it allows for precise adjustments and seamless integration with the existing structure. Because the materials specified provide monolithic adhesion, even thin patches are possible, and the traditional demolition of two inches is not required.
Surface slope can be corrected with an extensive patch application of varying thickness. The concrete substrate must be prepared first: grinding and debris removal is done first. Measurements are taken with a laser, to determine the slope required. The surface is then coated with adhesive, and new concrete is installed. Once the patch is cured, slight grinding is done, for a smoother finish.
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Slope correction, also known as resloping, is one of the repairs that can help preserve concrete structures. The need for slope correction can arise in various areas, such as balconies, elevator pits, and parking garage floors, where the existing slope may be insufficient or even inverted, leading to undesirable water flow patterns. For instance, improper slopes can cause water to accumulate towards the unit or garage walls, rather than draining away as intended.
Failing to address this issue promptly and effectively can have severe consequences, particularly for concrete structures. If surfaces remain damp due to inadequate drainage, this will lead to concrete degradation over time. As moisture seeps into the concrete, it weakens the material, compromising its durability and strength. Consequently, this deterioration can pose a significant risk of structural damage, potentially jeopardising the safety and longevity of the entire building or infrastructure.
To mitigate such risks, existing slopes must be assessed, and appropriate correction measures implemented. This entails taking correct measurements and calculating the required slope. By addressing slope correction properly, the service life of concrete surfaces can be extended, contributing to the overall safety and longevity of the building infrastructure.
COLD JOINT WATERPROOFING
Floor / wall corners (cold joints) are a weaker area of any concrete surface, so they are more likely to leak. For lasting waterproofing results, the joints are first chipped out to the depth of 1”. If there is active leakage, black cement and torching are used, to stop water flow and allow for the repair. A waterproofing material is applied next, followed by an industrial-strength adhesive. A continuous patch, running along the entire joint, is then installed forming a 45° angle. It is then coated with a specialised primer, followed by another layer of a waterproofing material. An upturn is down along the wall above floor cold joints for better results.
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Cold joints in concrete are vulnerable junctures between two slabs, including corners formed by two walls, or a wall and floor. It is crucial to recognise that these joints represent a potential weak point in the concrete surface, and if not adequately waterproofed, they are highly susceptible to leaks and water infiltration. To address this issue effectively, a specialised step-by-step repair procedure, must be strictly adhered to. It is imperative to utilise the specified materials, as they play a pivotal role in achieving long-lasting and reliable waterproofing outcomes. Adhering to the specified application will aid in maintaining the structural integrity and durability of the concrete surface, guarding it against the adverse effects of water damage.
FLOOR EXPANSION & CONTROL JOINTS
Expansion joints, the spaces between concrete slabs, play a crucial role in accommodating concrete expansion and contraction of up to four inches. Waterproofing these joints becomes essential when leaks occur to prevent concrete degradation.
For expansion joints located in parking garage podium roofs, we specify a specialised method of Negative-Side Injection: liquid rubber is injected directly into the expansion joints from the bottom, ensuring effective waterproofing for podium slabs without the need for excavations or extensive area closures, which translates to significant savings.
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Expansion joints stand as essential elements within concrete infrastructure. These gaps between concrete slabs allow for the expansion and contraction of concrete due to environmental and load-induced factors. This functional allowance for movement, often up to a remarkable four-inch range, is pivotal in preventing the stresses that could lead to structural issues. Nonetheless, to ensure the longevity and integrity of concrete structures, meticulous attention must be directed towards the preservation of these expansion joints and the prevention of any water leakage that could contribute to concrete degradation.
FLOOR EXPANSION JOINTS
Thorough joint cleaning is the compulsory preliminary action that involves the complete removal of any debris and contaminants. The substrate must be completely clean to ensure proper installation. Following the comprehensive preparation, the application of a suitable adhesive follows. This adhesive serves as the bonding agent, facilitating the adhesion of subsequent materials while concurrently sealing the joint's surfaces. The adhesive's compatibility with the selected waterproofing materials is essential, ensuring a robust and enduring adhesion.
Next, a backer rod must be inserted. This cylindrical foam material, positioned within the expansion joint, functions as a filler, regulating the depth of the ensuing waterproofing material.
A polyurea-based waterproofing material is used to then fill the joint. This high-performance substance is the material of choice because of its waterproofing characteristics and rapid curing attributes. Once applied, the polyurea material seamlessly envelops the joint, creating a robust barrier against water intrusion, while flexibly accommodating the dynamic movements intrinsic to concrete structures.
A similar repair method is specified for control joints, although the use of adhesive and backer rods is not required. In this case, a minimally intrusive preparation technique is specified since these joints are much narrower and less deep than expansion joints. A concrete saw is recommended, to open up the joints just slightly and to allow for debris removal. Subsequently, a gray aliphatic polyurea compound is introduced into the joint. Following the curing process, the polyurea material accommodates the customary expansion and contraction of joints, adeptly mitigating the risks of cracking and delamination.
EXPANSION JOINT & LEDGE BEAMS
To ensure a durable result, the joint is
cleaned out and coated with adhesive, and
a backer rod is inserted, to hold the injected
material in place. A polyurea injection follows,
sealing the joint and its edges, while allowing the slabs to expand and contract.
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Expansion joints, which are the spaces between concrete slabs, play a pivotal role in accommodating the expansion and contraction of concrete, allowing movement of up to four inches. However, it becomes crucial to address any leaks in these joints to prevent concrete degradation.
When dealing with expansion joints in parking garage podium roofs, we have developed a specialised method – Negative-Side Injection. This technique involves the direct injection of liquid rubber into the expansion joints from inside the parking garage, ensuring highly effective waterproofing. The most significant advantage of this approach is that it eliminates the need for costly and disruptive excavations or extensive area closures. Consequently, this method results in substantial cost savings and minimises the impact on the overall structure.
For those expansion joints located above ledge beams, the same method is specified for waterproofing, with the addition of beam crack repair and patching, as needed, to ensure lasting results.
In medical facilities, we are particularly committed to using Zero-VOC materials during the repair process. By doing so, we achieve smooth finishes in interior expansion joints, which not only ensures structural integrity but also prioritises patient comfort and the safe transport of medical equipment. Moreover, the use of Zero-VOC materials guarantees that no odors or harmful emissions are released during and after the repair work, ensuring a healthy and pleasant environment for patients and staff alike. We also specify that temporary enclosures during the repair process be used, to control dust and debris effectively. This measure ensures that the repair work does not disrupt the normal functioning of the medical facility and maintains a clean and hygienic setting for patients and medical personnel.
FLAT ROOF WATERPROOFING
Rigid Insulation with Polyurea Geotextile
To fully waterproof a flat roof, its surface must be prepared. Metal roofs must be free of oil, rust, and debris: a blaster or grinder is used, followed by a solvent for oil removal, if needed. With concrete roofs, any gravel, insulation, and fleece must be removed, and the concrete substrate is cleaned.
Either foam or rigid insulation can be used; it is installed and coated with primer. A polyurea-based membrane is sprayed or rolled on (depending on project requirements) next. In case gravel is not used for UV protection, and if the UV-resistant top coat is not applied immediately, then the waterproofing membrane must be coated with primer.
If rigid insulation is chosen, then it can be reinforced with polyurea or regular geotextyle sheets which are installed on top of a layer of adhesive which is applied over the rigid insulation layer.
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Correct surface preparation is of utmost importance to ensure the long-term success and effectiveness of the coating system. A properly prepared surface serves as a crucial foundation for the subsequent steps in the installation process.
Surface preparation involves several essential steps. Firstly, the entire surface must undergo a precise grinding process, ensuring that it is level and uniform. This step is critical as it creates an ideal substrate for the membrane to adhere to, promoting strong bonding and minimising the risk of delamination over time.
Furthermore, thorough cleaning of the surface is vital to eliminate any dirt, debris, or contaminants that could hinder the adhesion process. Particular attention should be given to the removal of oil and chemical stains, as these substances can compromise the integrity of the waterproofing system if not adequately addressed.
After the surface has been properly prepared, any necessary repairs should be promptly addressed and rectified. This step is crucial to ensure that the substrate is structurally sound and free from any defects that could undermine the membrane's effectiveness.
Following the surface preparation, the next crucial step is to apply either a two-component epoxy-based primer onto the floor surface, or a different type of primer, depending on the membrane that will be applied (for some membranes, no primer is required). This primer acts as a bonding agent, further enhancing the adhesion of the subsequent polyaspartic membrane, which is usually the membrane of choice, although a different type might be specified, depending on project characteristics and customer requirements.
Benefits of Polyaspartic Applications
Polyaspartic membranes offer significant advantages in most waterproofing applications. As a type of polyurea-based membrane, they exhibit remarkable durability, chemical resistance, and flexibility. One of the key benefits is their rapid curing time, which allows for quicker project completion, reduced downtime, and faster return-to-service for the waterproofed area.
Moreover, polyaspartic membranes demonstrate excellent resistance to UV degradation, making them highly suitable for outdoor applications where exposure to sunlight is a concern. Their high-performance properties make them an ideal choice for projects with demanding requirements and high traffic areas.
Manhole riser joint injection is a specialised technique used to address manhole leaks and prevent water infiltration. The process involves injecting a specially formulated polyurethane grout material to fully seal the manhole. First, openings are drilled above risers joints to relieve water pressure. Then, a packer or injection nozzle is inserted into these injection ports, and the grout is pumped under pressure into the voids, displacing any water present. The grout material expands to fill the gaps and seals the joints, creating a watertight barrier. This method effectively reinforces the manhole's integrity, minimises further deterioration, and enhances the overall performance and longevity of the sewage and drainage system.
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Manhole riser joint injection is an advanced and targeted technique employed to address the problem of manhole leaks and water infiltration. When traditional repair methods, such as surface patching, are inadequate, this approach comes into play.
The process starts by identifying the problematic areas in the manhole where leaks are occurring, typically at the riser joints. To prepare the site for injection, openings are strategically drilled above these joints. This step serves a crucial purpose by allowing the release of water pressure inside the manhole, ensuring a clean and effective injection process.
The key to the success of this technique lies in the specially formulated polyurethane grout material used for injection. This grout material is selected for its unique properties, such as low viscosity and expansive nature. When injected into the voids and gaps around the riser joints, the grout displaces any water present.
A packer or injection nozzle is then precisely inserted into the prepared injection ports. Polyurethane grout is pumped into the voids with carefully controlled pressure. As the grout fills the gaps, it undergoes expansion to ensure comprehensive coverage and tight sealing of the riser joints. This process creates a durable and impermeable barrier that effectively stops water infiltration and halts any further leaks from occurring.
By employing this method, the structural integrity of the manhole can be reinforced, preventing its further deterioration over time. The watertight barrier formed by the polyurethane grout not only enhances the manhole's performance in terms of preventing water infiltration but also contributes to the overall longevity and resilience of the entire sewage and drainage system.